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Annual screening for cervical cancer is done using the papanicolaou or Pap smear which has significantly reduced the incidence of cervical cancer.

Signs and symptoms:

  • Unusual vaginal bleeding or discharge
  • Urinary frequency or pain
  • Bleeding after intercourse

Risk Factors:

  • Early age of first intercourse
  • Multiparity (multiple births)
  • Infections with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)
  • Multiple sexual partners
  • Smoking

Stages:

  • Stage I: Lesion is confined to the cervix
  • Stage II: The cancer has spread beyond the cervix and surrounding tissues
  • Stage III: The cancer has extended to the pelvic sidewall or to the lower vagina
  • Stage IV: The cancer has spread beyond the cervix and involves the bladder or rectum

Treatment:

Early stage cancers of the cervix can be treated with radical hysterectomy and removal of the lymph nodes. More advanced cancers are usually treated with a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

  • Physical Exam and Pap smear
  • Every 3-4 months for 2 years
  • Every 6 months for years 3-5
  • Yearly thereafter