Annual screening for cervical cancer is done using the papanicolaou or PAP smear, which has significantly reduced the incidence of cervical cancer.

Signs and symptoms:

  • Unusual vaginal bleeding or discharge
  • Urinary frequency or pain
  • Bleeding after intercourse

Risk Factors:

  • Early age of first intercourse
  • Multiparity (multiple births)
  • Infections with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)
  • Multiple sexual partners
  • Smoking


  • Stage I: Lesion is confined to the cervix
  • Stage II: The cancer has spread beyond the cervix and surrounding tissues
  • Stage III: The cancer has extended to the pelvic sidewall or to the lower vagina
  • Stage IV: The cancer has spread beyond the cervix and involves the bladder or rectum


Early stage cancers of the cervix can be treated with radical hysterectomy and removal of the lymph nodes. More advanced cancers are usually treated with a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

  • Physical Exam and PAP smear
  • Every 3-4 months for 2 years
  • Every 6 months for years 3-5
  • Yearly thereafter